Archive

 

The Oral History Project: Interviews Abstracts

Interviews Conducted in 2016

Number of Interview: GA 8.0
Date: April 26, 2016
Name: Sandy Awad
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: August 6, 1994
Year of Immigration: 1995

Abstract: Sandy Awad was born in Palestine, yet was raised in Yakima, Washington. Yakima is an extremely small town and up until she was in high school, there were not many Arabs or Muslims around, which made it a little difficult for her family – especially for her mom when she decided to wear the hijab. That never deterred Sandy from wearing the hijab – seeing as she identifies herself first and foremost as a Muslim and then Palestinian. Being Palestinian means a great deal to Sandy. Being born there and understanding the culture, she was deeply rooted with her love for the land. Sandy moved to Milwaukee after meeting her husband, who is also Palestinian and from the same village of Deir Debwan. She is currently attending UWM and is working on her Bachelor’s in Kinesiology where she hopes to one day become either a Physical Therapist or a Physician Assistant.

Key Themes: Education, Palestine, Muslim

Number of Interview: GA 3.00
Number of Interview: GA 7.00
Date: April 20, 2016
Name: Amani Faris
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: 11/24/1993
Year of Immigration: Born in United States

Abstract: Amani Faris is a second generation Arab American. She was born and raised in Milwaukee where she attended public school her entire life. After graduating from Oak Creek High School, Amani went on to Alverno College and is currently working on her Bachelor’s in Adult Education and Community Leadership & Development. Being raised in an Arab household and looking up to her mom, Amani has always put education at the forefront of her mind, with the desire to be a strong and independent woman. Although she knows about and understands the typical stereotypes of Arab women, Amani seeks to be an exception to those stereotypes and works hard to be seen as an equal. She has a very strong hold on her Palestinian roots and attempts to embody the culture in her everyday living. Although it was a bit of an obstacle with her relatives, she is now currently engaged to a half Palestinian/half black man.

Key Themes: Feminist, independent, education, Palestinian, engaged

Number of Interview: SJ 10.00
Date: January 12, 2016
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 04/27/1994
Country of Origin: Palestine/America
Year of Immigration: Born in the U.S.

Abstract: Nada (name changed for confidentiality reasons) is a second generation woman currently pursuing a bachelor’s degree from Harvard University in Theology and Sociology. Growing up, she went to an Islamic school for her kindergarten through 8th grade education and then attended a private Catholic school for her high school education. She believes that her strong Muslim identity was shaped in part by her attending an Islamic school. Since she is biracial, born to a Palestinian father and a White mother, she believes that her White features along with her being a Muslim has given her a distinctive relationship with others around her. She identifies herself with different people differently. Although she identifies herself as a Muslim, Palestinian, and American, with the order changing depending on her interactions, she feels that her Muslim identity always takes priority. Nada believes that her multiple identities allows her to have a broader perspective compared to many of her peers. She expressed much appreciation for her American heritage.

Key Themes: education, Islam, culture, biracial identity

Number of Interview: GA 6.0
Date: 1/11/2016
Name: Hanan
Gender: Female
Birthday: 6/12/1988
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1989

Abstract: Hanan was raised on the east side of Milwaukee and was the oldest child in her family. Although her mother attempted to speak only Arabic with her, once she started school Hanan refused to answer her mom in anything other than English. Living a little farther from the rest of the community, Hanan’s family did not interact much with any other Arab families. Because of this, culture was not a significant factor in their lives; whereas, religion was at the forefront of her upbringing. Hanan never really had any Arab friends until her parents transferred her to the local Islamic School halfway through her fifth grade year. Her father wanted her to finish school before getting married, and therefore, turned away any potential suitor without mentioning them to Hanan. When she was in her third year of college, her now husband came and asked for her hand in marriage. Although it took some time for her father to agree, one surprising comment her father made was “you couldn’t have found a man who was from a farther village (in Palestine) than he is?!” This comment showed that her father would have preferred a man from the same village as them. However, he quickly got over the fact that they are from different villages and gave his blessing. Hanan and her husband now live a very happy life in Milwaukee while he works as a civil engineer and she works towards her PhD.

Key themes: Muslim, Palestine, village, education

Number of Interview: GA 5.0
Date: 1/9/2016
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Birthday: July 10, 1989
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born in the United States

Abstract: Rania (name changed for confidentiality) is a second generation Arab American who grew up as the oldest daughter under very strict parents, with a father known for his old-school mentality. She was born and raised in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and although she attended the local Islamic school, culture took the forefront in her family home over religion. Rania’s parents expected of her not only to marry right after graduating from high school, but she was expected to marry a man who originates from the same village as her family. One of the biggest challenges Rania faced was convincing her parents to pursue further education, instead of getting married after high school. Although in the end they agreed, they still did not like the idea of her becoming a full-time working nurse. Her husband, Mustafa (name changed for confidentiality), and his family were very well known in the community. The two knew each other for quite some time and when it came to asking for her hand Rania’s father did not agree to it because Mustafa was not from their family’s village. However, Mustafa was persistent and asked for her hand in marriage several times before Rania’s father agreed. Rania believes she has paved the way for her younger siblings and their future endeavors because she was able to show her father and convince him to move beyond some ideas that stem from his traditional mentality.

Key themes: Palestine, culture, Muslim, village, marriage, parenting

Number of Interview: GA 4.0
Date: 1/6/2016
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Birthday: September 17, 1988
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born in the United States

Abstract: Mariam (name changed for confidentiality) identifies herself first and foremost as a Muslim. When her father was 15 years old, he and his family fled their village in Palestine and sought refuge in Jordan where they lived out the rest of their youth. Although Mariam originates from Palestine, she identifies more as a Jordanian – especially since she has never been able to gain access into Palestine. Mariam was born and raised in a predominately Jewish neighborhood in Rochester, New York, where the Arab culture was never a large part of her life. Islam was an influence in her life, as her mothers always instilled the values of Islam and love for Allah in her children. Moving to Milwaukee when she was a teenager was a huge change for Mariam. She witnessed many Muslims all within the same area –something she did not experience in Rochester. Mariam obtained both her Bachelor’s and her Master’s degrees in Milwaukee right before marrying an Indian convert. Mariam seems to be one of the rare cases in which, as an Arab Muslim woman, she did not have any issues when marrying a convert, and someone outside of her family’s country of origin. Her parents were less worried about where he came from and more concerned with his age because he is three years younger than Mariam. However, soon after meeting him, her parents fully agreed and they now live a full and happy life together.

Key themes: Muslim, education, convert, marriage

Number of Interview: SJ 8.00
Date: January 4, 2016
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 04/15/1994
Country of Origin: Lebanon
Year of Immigration: 1994

Abstract: Zaina (name changed for confidentiality reasons) is a 21 year-old woman who was born in Kuwait and moved to Milwaukee shortly after her birth. She is currently attending UW-Madison and pursuing a degree in community non-profit management and sociology. Zaina identifies herself as Arab and Muslim. Her Arab culture plays a fundamental role in shaping her actions and beliefs, such as the value she places on hospitality. However, Zaina feels as if she has to change how she identifies in order to better present herself in a society she feels does not understand her religious and cultural values. She feels that Muslims continue to experience the after effects of the 9/11 attacks because the events majorly affected the American conscious. When considering a future spouse, his Muslim identity would be the most important factor in her choice. Growing up, the most significant aspect of her parent’s homeland that was very present in her life and which allowed her to remain connected to her heritage was the Arabic language, which she thanks her parents for being a fluent speaker.

Key Themes: Arab, Muslim, hijab, ambition, parents, language

Number of Interview: SJ 7.00
Date: January 3, 2016
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 05/02/1992
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: 2005

Abstract: Anya (name changed for confidentiality reasons) is a first generation Pakistani American woman who was born in the Northern Pakistan, ethnically she identifies as Pathan. She moved to the United States with her family when she was 12 years old. Anya is currently a college student attending UW-Milwaukee majoring in public health and aspiring to attend graduate school for public health. She believes that her identity is fluid and changes with time and place, however, being Muslim is the one identity that stays constant. Her Muslim identity is a very important and fundamental part of who she is and is present in all aspects of her life. She feels that she was raised by her family’s culture influence, which has helped instill a distinct identity within her. Her family did not have the typical cultural atmosphere found in most Pakistani households, as she explained, her father was very particular on which cultural practices he exposed his children to. Anya believes that her cultural and religious identity has allowed her to appreciate the diversity around her.

Key Themes: hijab, Muslim, Pakistani, culture, American, family, identity

Interviews Conducted in 2014-2015

Number of Interview: SJ 6.00
Date: December 25, 2015
Name: Salma Akhtar
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 10/07/1995
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: Born in the U.S.

Abstract: Salma is a 20 year old second generation woman studying psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Waukesha. Growing up, Salma attended both a public school and a private school. As religion and culture were fundamental parts of her childhood, they continue to both hold importance in her life. Her parents encouraged her and her siblings to speak Urdu at home in order to strengthen their language skills and instill a part of their culture within them. Salma believes that being religious does not only mean following the religious practices, such as praying five times a day, but also holds the responsibility of portraying a positive image about Islam through her daily interactions and volunteerism. She is very involved with the diversity club on her college campus to promote cultural understanding. Salma also stresses the importance of education in family structures, and believes that equality between the genders is contingent upon the education level of the family.

Key Themes: Muslim, culture, tradition, prayer, education, diversity

Number of Interview: SJ 5.00
Date: November 20, 2015
Name: Fayqa Oweisi
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: 05/17/1992
Year of Immigration: Born in the U.S.

Abstract: Fayqa was born in Peoria, Illinois but moved to a number of different cities while growing up because her father found different jobs. They eventually settled in Caledonia, Wisconsin where Fayqa grew up as the oldest of five children. She completed her bachelor’s degree in Communication Sciences and Disorders from UW-Madison and is currently pursuing a master’s degree in Speech Therapy at Marquette University. Fayqa got married to her husband, whom she first met at community events, when she was 21 years old. She identifies herself as, first and foremost, Muslim and whenever she faces a conflict between her cultural practices and religious beliefs, she chooses to follow her religious beliefs. Fayqa explained that she identifies as Palestinian, to the extent that her culture does not contradict her religious beliefs.

Key Themes: hijab, Muslim, Palestinian, modesty.

Number of Interview: SJ 4.00
Date: November 14, 2015
Name: Sarah Mustafa
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Jordan
Date of Birth: 06/05/1994
Year of Immigration: Born in the U.S.

Abstract: Sarah is a second generation woman born and raised in Milwaukee, Wisconsin as the oldest of her five siblings. She identifies herself as a Muslim American Arab. Sarah attended an Islamic school for a majority of her education, and as religion is extremely important to her, she aspires to raise her children with strong religious values. When she was 18 years old Sarah married her husband, whom she met in Jordan during a family vacation. They are currently raising their two-year old daughter while Sarah pursues certification in Dental Hygiene from Milwaukee Area Technical College. As spending quality time with family was important during her childhood, Sarah hopes to continue that notion while raising her family.

Key Themes: Islam, family, hijab, optimism, American, parenting

Number of Interview: GA 3.00
Date: November 1, 2015
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: Faiza (name changed for confidentiality reasons) is a second generation Arab American who was born and raised in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Although both of her parents are immigrants, the American culture has always resonated with her more than the Arab culture. Faiza is the youngest of seven children, and felt she had more freedom than all of her other siblings. Her parents expected her to finish high school and get married, preferably to a Palestinian they already knew. She was told that her future should comprise of being a good mother and wife, but Faiza always wanted more for herself. Acting as her role model, her older brother did not agree with Faiza getting married after high school, and instead, emphasized the importance of education and independence. Faiza is now married to a white convert from the Milwaukee community who she knew prior due to work and school. Initially, her parents did not agree to their marriage due to the immense differences between the two (language, culture, history, etc.). However, after two years, her father felt as if he truly got to know him and gave the couple his blessing.

Key themes: Muslim, American, convert, education, independence

Number of Interview: SJ 3.00
Date: 10/23/2015
Gender: Female
Name: Huda Asad
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born in the United States

Abstract: Huda is a second-generation woman who spent most of her life growing up in North Carolina, a town that she described as having very little diversity. She got married at the age of 21 and moved to Milwaukee. She is the oldest of three girls. Prior to moving to Milwaukee, Huda completed her bachelor’s degree in North Carolina in accounting. After moving to Milwaukee she completed her master’s degree at UW-Milwaukee. She prides herself in being a Muslim and a Palestinian. Growing up, she struggled formulating her identity, and feels that the older she gets the more she prides herself in her Muslim and Palestinian identities. Huda feels that her parents’ emphasis on education has allowed her to become goal and career oriented. Establishing her career and independence was very important to her and finding a husband who was supportive of her goals has allowed her to continue her education and establish a career. In Huda’s opinion, marriage is about teamwork, effort, and friendship.

Key Themes: Proud, Muslim, Palestinian, Arabic, School, Career

Name of Interview: GA 2.00
Date: October 20, 2015
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: October 23, 1987
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: Yusra (name changed for confidentiality reasons) identifies herself as a Muslim first, an American second, and a Palestinian third. Being a second generation Arab American, she struggled growing up trying to balance the Arab culture with her American personality. She graduated from MATC with a degree in Clinical Laboratory Technology. Her parents emigrated here from Palestine after they got married, and have always told Yusra marriage, to a Palestinian man, should be her biggest priority. However, Yusra felt a strong connection to a Pakistani man in the community, and after some time, her parents agreed to the marriage. After having her son Yusra made the decision to stop working in order to properly raise him and give him the best possible upbringing. She believes that in order to truly raise a son to be proud of, a woman should take the time to stay at home. Wanting to give her son the best of all the worlds surrounding him, Yusra hopes her son will be trilingual: Arabic through herself, Pashtu through her mother-in-law and husband, and English through the Milwaukee school system. Yusra is enjoying her life as a stay at home mother with the help of her mother-in-law who cooks traditional Pakistani food for the family.

Key themes: Parenting, religion, multicultural, modernity

Number of Interview: SJ 2.00
Date: Oct 10th 2015
Gender: Female
Name: Sabreen Sarsour
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born in the United States

Abstract: Sabreen Sarsour is a second generation Muslim, Palestinian American. She is currently 24 years old and in the process of completing her nursing degree at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Sabreen was born in Florida as the second child to a Palestinian couple, throughout her life she has moved to numerous places throughout the U.S. and has also spent a number of years in Palestine. She spent her K-12 schooling between public schools, religious schools, and American schools overseas in Palestine. Sabreen admit facing many difficulties as a Muslim, specifically due to negative images and stereotypes of Muslims post 9/11. She also faced difficulty balancing her religion and Palestinian culture. She moved to Milwaukee after getting married, two years ago. She has a one-year old daughter, and lives in a shared apartment house with her in laws. Throughout her life, Sabreen was always looking for stability, although she did admit that the move to Milwaukee was difficult, she is happy that she finally found a place she knows she will spend the rest of her life.

Key Themes: Stability, Independent, Pride, Muslim, Education, Struggles, Mother, Parenting style

Number of Interview: GA 1.00
Date: October 8, 2015
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: October 23, 1987
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract:Sarah (name changed for confidentiality reasons) identifies herself first and foremost as an American. Although she was born in Chicago, Illinois she was raised in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Growing up a second generation Arab American, Sarah was raised in a household with parents who held an “old school mentality” which she referred to as the frame of mind of those who were born and raised overseas but have not fully acclimated to the American culture and mindset – whether it dealt with religion, dress, education, and marriage. For example, Sarah’s parents believed that education was not necessary for females and instead, encouraged marriage after finishing high school. Sarah lives and works in Milwaukee, Wisconsin as a nurse, just as her husband who is an American Muslim convert. In her interview, Sarah talks of the struggles she went through in convincing her parents and family to not only meet her now husband, but also agree to the marriage. Because she respects her parents deeply, she would have never married someone who her parents did not approve of and did not bestow their blessings upon. Sarah and her husband have been married for almost two years now and love to travel to new places.

Key themes: Muslim, American, convert, education.

Number of Interview: SJ 1.00
Date: 9/30/2015
Gender: Female
Name: Anonymous
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born in the United States

Abstract: Nada (name changed for confidentiality reasons) is a second generation women who has spent most of her life in the Milwaukee area. She identifies herself as a Muslim first, and Palestinian American second. She is currently a student at Marquette University where she majors in Clinical Lab Science. Nada grew up with her parents who have incorporated much of their heritage into their life as she was growing up. She was born in Milwaukee as the youngest of her siblings. Although she has spent most of her life in the United States, she feels a great sense of pride in her Palestinian heritage. Growing up she visited Palestine numerous times during her school vacations. Nada attended Milwaukee Public Schools for all her K-12 schooling. Despite having few Muslim friends outside of her family growing up, she maintained a very strong sense of her religious identity. Nada also pointed that throughout her life, she has very scarcely been ostracized due to her Muslim identity. She hopes to make her parents proud by excelling in her studies and becoming successful.

Key Themes: Islam, Hijab, Palestinian identity, education, heritage, pride.

Number of Interview: RA and RJ
Date: September 16, 2015
Name: Monaal Barakat
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: November 22, 1982
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: As a second generation Muslim Arab woman who has lived in the United States as well as Palestine, Monaal discusses the journey she went through consciously in order to find her place between culture and religion. As a working mother of two children she highlights the importance of setting a good example for her children in order to influence a sense of strong religious identity within them. Through cultural clothing and her decision to wear the hijab, Monaal hopes her children will learn to be proud of who they are and where they come from. Her daughter encourages her to continue to wear traditional clothing in order to keep a sense of culture. In her interview Monaal’s connection with her homeland shines through as she talks about a common feeling of togetherness within the Palestinian community as each individual empathizes with the oppression Palestinians have endured throughout the years. Monaal has a degree in biology and although Monaal had no intention in getting married while in college, Monaal married an American Palestinian a couple of years before completing her undergraduate degree. She also resides in the greater Milwaukee area with her husband and two children.

Number of Interview: RJ 4.00
Date: August 30th, 2015
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: 01/04/1996
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: The interviewee identifies herself as a Muslim Palestinian American. Sarah (name changed for confidentiality reasons) was born and raised in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Sarah attended a private Islamic school in the greater Milwaukee area throughout her elementary, middle, and high school years and believes her family and community have a big influence in her daily life. The two most important factors that shape her life are religion and culture as well, and she identifies greatly with the two, but emphasizes the importance of religion more in living a successful life. In terms of culture, Sarah sticks to some cultural aspects such as: speaking the Arabic language at home and wearing traditional cultural clothing at cultural events and special occasions, which helps her connect with her homeland and the values instilled in her while growing up as a child. Sarah is currently an undergraduate student majoring in biology. She plans to further her education and continue on the path of medicine. Sarah is currently not married and would like to finish her studies before considering marriage.

Key Terms: Religion, School, Family, Culture

Number of Interview: RJ 2.00
Date: August 5, 2015
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: Unknown
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: Amani (name changed for confidentiality reasons) identifies herself as a second generation Muslim American of Palestinian descent. Amani remembers spending most of her childhood with her cousins and seven siblings. She graduated from Marquette University in 2007 with a degree in Clinical Laboratory Science and currently works at a hospital. As a child, Amani knew being Muslim meant there were restrictions on things she could and could not do, and as she became older she understood the importance of religion in her daily life. Religion is an important part of her daily life and she hopes to instill this within her daughter as well. Growing up, Amani found that culture sometimes use to override religion, and found that to be a result of being raised by first generation parents. Amani resides in Milwaukee and is married to a Moroccan Muslim and has a daughter.

Key themes: Muslim, Religion, Culture

Number of Interview: RJ 1.00
Date: July 28, 2015
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Male
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: 08/22/1969
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: The interviewee identifies himself first and foremost as an American-Muslim. Ahmad (name changed for confidentiality reasons) was born and raised in Chicago, Illinois and later moved to Palestine during his late childhood years and returned to the U.S. during his early adulthood years. Ahmad is an entrepreneur and was not able to complete college due to financial hardship. Religion is the most important factor to Ahmad and he believes it is an essential component throughout his daily life. Life has posed many challenges after 9/11 for him as an American-Muslim. He has strongly felt the pressure to educate his fellow peers and believes that education is a strong asset in portraying the real image of Islam. In addition to religion, Ahmad emphasized the importance of family and visiting his homeland Palestine to visit his parents and relatives. Ahmad resides in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and is married to a Palestinian Muslim and has four children.

Key Themes: Religion, American-Muslim, Family.

Interviews Conducted in 2012-2013

Number of Interview: RA 14.00
May 29, 2013
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: Unknown
Country of Origin: Jordan
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: Latifa is a second generation woman who has spent the majority of her life in the Milwaukee area. During her interview Latifa stressed the family- oriented lifestyle she is accustomed to and reflected upon the time she spent at after school programs. Latifa recently graduated from college and earned her her Bachelor’s degree. She hopes to continue her education in engineering. Latifa also spoke about the level of comfort she feels as a Muslim woman in her neighborhood and elaborates on how she identifies with the American culture more than the Arab culture although some aspects of Arab culture, such as generosity, stay with her.

Key Themes: education, childhood, parents, identity, goal, language, religion, hijab.

Number of Interview: K 1.00
April 26, 2013
Name: Ala Ismail
Gender: Female
Country of Origin: Palestine
Date of Birth: Unknown
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: Ala identifies herself as a Muslim American Palestinian. Her parents immigrated from Palestine in 1990 after their wedding. Ala moved to the Milwaukee area after being born in Chicago, Illinois and is the oldest of her 5 siblings. She is a student at Marquette University where she majors in Biological Sciences and Spanish for the Medical Professions. Though Ala’s parents had never attended college, they actively support their children’s education and expect all 6 of them to attend a four-year university. Ala’s parents treat all of their children equally, regardless of gender, and expect them to be active within their community. As a student, Ala supports Pro-Palestinian political action groups because she believes that she should help to educate the American public about the plight of Palestinians living in their cultural homeland. Vacations to Palestine and hearing Arabic spoken at home bring her closer to her heritage and allow her to spend more time with her friends and family. Religion is also very important to Ala and she closely follows the pillars of Islam. When she decides to marry, having a modern yet traditional wedding and finding a husband that is devoted to Islam is very important.

Key themes: student life, education, pro-Palestine, parent expectations, wedding, marriage

Number of Interview: CC 2.00
Date: April 20, 2013
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: Unknown
Name: Anonymous
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: born in U.S.

Abstract: Ruba identifies herself as American Palestinian and spent a portion of her life living in Beitin, Palestine, where her parents are originally from. She greatly appreciates her parents’ open-mindedness in their upbringing of their children and recognizes that not all second-generation immigrants would have had the same freedoms and independence to choose their careers as she has. Ruba considers herself a moderate Muslim – she follows all dietary and alcohol restrictions, but does not pray five times daily or wear the hijab, though she does not feel that should define a “good Muslim.” She strongly empathizes with the conflicts happening in her parents’ homeland and throughout the Middle East and has considered joining the Peace Corps or other volunteer organizations to give her time to help those struggling abroad.

Key terms: Education, religion, culture, parenting style, Palestine

Number of Interview: RA 13.00
April 13, 2013
Name: Anonymous
Date of Birth: Unknown
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: February 28, 1973

Abstract: The interviewee chose to remain anonymous and will be known as Salam throughout the interview. Salam is a first generation immigrant from Palestine who grew up living in a small village called ‘Atara’. She lived in a small house with her parents, grandparents, two brothers and two sisters. After immigrating to the Milwaukee area, Salam and her husband started a family and now have eight children and a number of grandchildren. Throughout her interview Salam highlighted her life during childhood and the trips she and her husband take back to their homeland. Cultural clothing keeps her connected to her traditions and brings back memories of Palestine, it also teaches her children about their history and culture.

Key Themes: childhood, religion, cultural clothing, parenting, Palestine, work, identity.

Number of Interview: AD 2.00
March 15, 2013
Name: Afaf Abdallah
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: November 26, 1957
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1975

Abstract: This interview narrated the life of an Arab Muslim Immigrant.  Coming to the United States at a young age with her husband frightened Afaf.  Her marriage brought her to the states and the opportunities her family received kept her here all of these years. Household chores and raising the children prevented Afaf from continuing her education once she came to the US, but education was still very important to her.  All three of her children finished schooling through 4-year Universities.  She was unable to take on a job, but Afaf volunteered every chance that she could.  Afaf identifies herself as a Muslim Palestinian American.

Key Themes: Culture, Religion, War, Immigration, Children, Grandchildren, Education, Marriage, Cultural Clothing, Gender, Parenting, and Politics

Number of Interview: SD. 1.00
March 2013
Name: Anonymous
Gender:  Female
Date of Birth: Anonymous
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: 1999

Abstract: This narrator focused mainly on the concepts of religion, family and freedom. She was able to design her life to meet her liberal social beliefs without disrespecting her religious and cultural norms. In doing so she hopes she can empower her daughter to seek out a strong education and life a truly free life while maintaining her Muslim identity. She emphasized the values of liberalism and respect for others, mainly elders believing it was the key to live a good life. She also dismissed the cultural norms of dress, believing her religion lay in her heart and is best represented through prayer and devotion and not material.

Key terms: freedom, religion, family, education, respect.

Number of interview: AS 1.00
March 2013
Name: Sana Muhesinna
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: Unknown
Country of Origin: Kuwait
Year of Immigration: Unknown

Abstract: Sana was born and raised in Kuwait, but moved to Jordan post the Gulf War. The Gulf War, according to Sana, was the worst event in her entire life. From Jordan, she moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin following her husband. Her husband had a set career position in Milwaukee and she continued her education at UWM. After achieving her Masters in Biomedical Sciences, Sana became pregnant with triplets. Education was a main factor in deciding a neighborhood location for their first house. All the children attend a monetary school currently, and will be entering their first year of high school next year. They attend Sunday school to learn about their religion and Sana emphasis’s the importance of religion in her household. Sana emphasizes the importance of religion, and while she maintains the Arab culture in the food she cooks and in her house décor, Sana believes that religion is the most important form of identification for her kids. Sana tries to wear modest clothing such as longer shirts with quarter sleeves and long pants/skirts and only wears cultural clothing while she is overseas or at a wedding. Sana identifies herself as a Muslim Jordanian woman even though her parents are Palestinian and she spent the majority of her life in Kuwait.

Key terms: Education, parenting, identity, clothing, religion, Gulf War

Number of Interview: SD.2.00
March 10, 2013
Gender: Female
Name: Anonymous
Date of Birth: Unknown
Country of Origin: Iran
Year of Immigration: 1979

Abstract: The interviewee came from Iran during the 1979 Islamic Revolution with her spouse. With a background in nursing, she emphasized the importance of providing and helping others. She installed a strong sense of Persian culture in her children, and started a school to study the culture. Education, along with a modern approach to religion are high priorities in her life.

Key Themes: Identity, modernity, education, family, culture
Number of Interview: AAS1

March 5, 2013
Gender: Female
Name: Houda
Country of Origin: Egypt
Date of Birth: November 1964
Year of Immigration: 1995

Abstract: The interview with Houda (name changed for confidentiality reasons), an Egyptian immigrant, focuses mostly on her methods of childcare and her relationship with her husband. Houda also considers her pre-immigration misconceptions of life in the United States, and her current understanding of life in America. She uses this while describing how people in the Milwaukee area treat her as opposed to people her previous home, Chicago treated her. Furthermore, Houda describes the role of cultural clothing, like the galabiya, in her household in Egypt and in the United States, noting its role in society as well.

Key Themes: Childcare, Egyptian perspective on America, Cultural Clothing, Equality in the household

Interview number: AS6.1
February 25, 2013
Gender: Female
Name: Leila
Year of immigration: 1995

Abstract: Leila immigrated to the United States from Rabat, Morocco in 1995 with her three children after being recently divorced. She stayed in Illinois with a friend until she obtained a job and eventually moved to Milwaukee with her children. Leila felt homesick after first immigrating because she left without being fully able to say good bye to her family.  The greatest cultural difference she experienced was the “individualistic” society of the United States. She was accustomed to spending most of her time with family and friends. Leila explained to me how difficult it was to come from a very traditional family and be divorced.  She didn’t have much support from friends and family and Moroccan law was not in her favor. However, she found strength in her religion to be able to raise her three children as a single mom.  Leila graduated from university in Morocco and received a bachelor’s degree in Business Administration from University of Madison.  She recently began an online business and her children are in college.  Leila also explained about the cultural significance of the Caftan and Jebella, two important cultural clothing pieces in her culture.  They both represent modesty and sanctity of the female body and tell a different story.  Leila is proud to be a Moroccan-American citizen and is thankful for all of the opportunities she has been given.

Key Terms: Independence, religion, overcoming hardship, cultural clothing, divorce

Number of Interview: CC1.00
February 13, 2013
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: Unknown
Name: Anonymous
Country of Origin: Syria
Year of Immigration: born in U.S.

Abstract: Salma grew up in a Syrian-Christian household and very much appreciates her Arab heritage. She feels her father’s reluctance to share his financial situation held her back in her education, but she is happy with her career and life. She did, however, give her daughters the freedom to choose their colleges. She does not believe her daughters need to limit themselves to an Arab community or Orthodox one, but she raised them in her Orthodox faith and her husband’s Roman Catholic faith. Food is how she expresses her identity the most, and she taught her daughters how to cook Syrian food, as well. She considers herself American Arab because she was born in America. Salma’s religion and her culture play a big role in her identity, but they are not the sole factors she uses to define herself.

Key Themes: food, schooling, parenting, music, celebrations

Number of Interview: K 1.00
February 10, 2013
Name: Eyrin Muhamad
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: Unknown
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1980

Abstract: Eyrin was born in Palestine and identifies herself as an Arab Muslim. Growing up the only daughter of a successful chef in a small Palestinian village and attending school in metropolitan Jerusalem affected Eyrin’s worldview. Her family’s wealth separated her experience from that of her cousins and friends, but generosity was a virtue that her parents greatly valued. As a result of her upbringing, Eyrin values her family bond and keeps in regular contact with relatives living in Palestine. After moving from Palestine to the United States, Eyrin hoped that she would be able to successfully impart the traditional Muslim values, such as generosity, to her children. Although she came from a strict traditional family, Eyrin has allowed her children to participate in non-traditional public school activities including cheerleading and other organized athletics. She expects her children to act in accordance with their cultural traditions while keeping an open mind and accepting American cultural norms as well.

Key Themes:  family, parenting, women’s role, cultural clothes

Interview number: ALS5.1
February 9, 2013
Gender: Female
Name: Ayah
Year of immigration: 1979

Abstract: Ayah immigrated to the United States from Hebron, Palestine when she was fifteen and a half years old to Washington D.C. to live with her husband and mother-in-law. Ayah felt great deals of loneliness because her English was limited and her husband would not allow her to drive.  After living in America for ten years, she and her husband decided to move back to Palestine for four years so that their children could learn to appreciate the values of both Arab and American life.  They moved back to America in order to give their children an American college education. Ayah and her husband divorced when they moved back to the United States. She learned to become strong and independent for her kids and emphasized the importance of getting an education so her children wouldn’t have to rely on anyone to take care of them.  As a divorced woman in her culture, Ayah felt the gossip that surrounded her but her religion gave her the strength to walk away and become a role model for her children. Ayah obtained her GED and studied cosmetology at MATC for two years. Ayah opened a salon and remarried and now emphasized the importance of living life to the fullest

Key Terms: Independence, religion, divorce, education, culture

Number of Interview: AD 1.00
February 8, 2013
Name: Ola
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: July 23, 1971
Country of Origin: Lebanon
Year of Immigration: 1994

Abstract: Growing up in Lebanon during times of war, Ola is grateful that she is able to raise her children in peace here in the United States. Ola highlighted the importance of staying at home with her children rather than taking on a job. She strives to educate her son and three daughters about their religion because Islam plays a large role in the way Ola identifies herself as Muslim Arab Lebanese. Teaching her children about the Lebanese culture is important to her as well, but she is not able to visit Lebanon due to complicated issues preventing her and her family from leaving the country. Ola chooses not to vote not only because she simply cannot, but also because she does not want to take responsibility for choosing a candidate who will not fulfill the promises made.  Cultural clothing did not play an important role in her Arab identity.

Key Terms: Lebanon, war, raising children, family, religion, gender

Number of Interview: RMFA1.00
February 7, 2013
Name: Fatimah Ayesher
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: Unknown
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1988

Abstract: Fatimah Ayesher, a first generation immigrant who came to the United States at the age of eighteen, left her family in order to start a new life with her husband. While seeking economic prosperity in the United States, language became a barrier for Fatimah and her husband. The lack of language motivated Fatimah to teach herself English. Fatimah’s tenacity to become educated soon transferred to her children as well as to other individuals. She strives to motivate and instill the importance of education and its potential it can serve to her children and others. Fatimah believes that education functions as a necessary fundamental building block, and when supplemented with life experiences, can serve as an instrument that dissolves ignorance and hate against other cultures and religions. For this reason, Fatimah, with her busy family schedule, has taken on the initiative to empower immigrant women by establishing a women’s swimming program and English classes in the YMCA.

Key Themes: education, family life, religion, cultural and religious clothing, women’s role.

Number of Interview: RMFA 2.00
February 2013
Name: Soraya Mustafo Omar
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: September 12, 1980
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born In the United States

Abstract:  Born in the United States, Soraya Mustafo Omar started her schooling in the United States. Obtaining only three years in the Milwaukee school system, her family found the need for her to continue her elementary, middle school, and high school studies in Palestine. As a result she has learned the Arab language and culture. Her parent’s motivation to provide an education that promoted her heritage has transcended into Soraya’s family’s upbringing. As a mother of four, Soraya asserts that a mother is the fundamental building block to a child’s moral and religious beliefs. She also expresses her frustration and discontent among many Americans who have resorted to associate her with the planners of the September 11 attacks and have targeted Soraya with negative comments. Soraya also emphasizes the importance of wearing a hijab and her personal religious attachment to it.

Key Themes: women’s role, education, cultural cloths, family life, religion.

Number of interview: SP3.00
February 2013
Name: Sherrie
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: Unknown
Country of Origin: Iran
Year of Immigration: Unknown

Abstract: As a first generation immigrant from Iran, Sherrie grew up in the populated city of Shiraz. She is a dedicated mother, wife, and business owner and spends most of her time working in the restaurant that she owns on Milwaukee’s North side. Since the age of fourteen, she has chosen to wear the hijab even still today. For her, this creates a strong connection to her religion and is also a statement of her identity and her homeland. She does not feel much discrimination in society despite being the only one out of her friends and family in the United States that wears the hijab. Out of her five children, she has one daughter who has chosen not to veil herself, and Sherrie supports this decision until her daughter is ready to do it for herself.  During the interview, Sherrie describes the process of having had an arranged marriage to her second cousin.

Key Themes: Parenting, Cultural Clothing, Marriage, Career, Religion

Number of Interview: AM
Summer 2012
Name: Margaret Hale
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: October 1922
Country of Origin: Syria
Year of Immigration: Born in the U.S.

Abstract: Margaret was born in the United States and considers herself and American Syrian. Her mother was born in Damascus, Syria while her father was born in Jerusalem. During her interview, Margaret reminisced about memories of her childhood, such as the Syrian music always playing in her house as a child, and the times she spent with her family and siblings. She also went into great depth about the history of her parents’ marriage and immigration to the United States through Ellis Island. Margaret keeps her Syrian heritage and identity by cooking cultural food for her own children and telling her children stories about their family’s history.

Key Themes: Syrian culture, childhood memories, marriage, religion, family history.

Number of Interview: RA 15.00
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: Unknown
Country of Origin: Moracoo
Year of Immigration: 2007

Abstract: The interviewee chose to remain anonymous and will be referred to as “Marwa” throughout the interview. Marwa travelled to the United States alone in her early 20’s when she initially felt very lonely but she knew opportunities in the United States could give her the freedom and independence she desired.  Throughout the interview Marwa talked about how she met her husband, the struggles she had when she first arrived and the importance of identifying herself as Moroccan. Cultural clothing plays an important role in Marwa’s life. In the interview, she spoke about the seven different dresses she wore on her wedding day that took place in Morocco and the feelings she experiences when she wears them.

Key Themes: independence, opportunities, culture, language, religion, family, marriage

Interview number: IA1.00
Name: Dalal Abujad
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: September 12, 1952
Year of Immigration: 1984

Abstract:  The domestic sphere is a main focus in the interview conducted with Dalal. Her perspectives regarding the domestic sphere shed light on the way in which Muslim American families seek to define and redefine gender roles in light of an ever changing family dynamic. The family serves as a locus of self-worth and value for Dalal. Motherhood, for Dalal, is a position of power within the household; the mother seeks to mold Mulsim American youth by offering religious and moral anchors which aid them in their integration into American society. Traditions serve as one of the tools through which these moral and religious bonds are shaped.KEY TERMS: women’s role, tradition, cultural cloths , family life, religion.
Interview number: ALS4.1
November 17, 2012
Name: Maha
Gender: Female
Date of Birth:
Year of immigration: 1969

Abstract: Maha is 70 years old and was born in Palestine, but immigrated to the United States to live with her husband in 1969.  Before she immigrated, she felt the presence of Israel as they began to occupy Palestine when the country confiscated her family’s farm land.  After immigrating to the United States it was difficult for her family to assimilate to the new culture because they were one of the first Arab and Muslim families to live in the area.  However, she kept her culture alive through her traditional and cultural clothing.  She wore the hijab when she was a young girl but stopped wearing it when she came to America and didn’t put it back on until she was older and wanted to set a good example for her daughter.  She believes it symbolizes the Virgin Mary and represents her Muslim religion. Maha also wears the thub, a long dress that is black and handmade embroidered, to the mosque and to weddings.  The thub symbolizes the Muslim traditions and pleases God because it keeps woman covered, meaning they are pure are more valuable in God’s eyes.

KEY TERMS: traditional clothing, religious clothing, cultural identity.
Number of interview: RA 7.00
November 2, 2012
Name: Riham Hamdan
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: September 22, 1975
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: As a second generation Arab American, Riham grew up spending a majority of her childhood in her home with six siblings while attending the Islamic center on the weekends. Now, as a mother of three children, Riham understands why her parents raised her in a protective manner that revolved greatly around their cultural values.  She makes sure to instill the same sense of religion and culture in her children although she believes in giving her daughter more freedom than she had as a child. Riham feels a strong connection with Arab culture.  Even though she wears modern modest clothing, she feels special connection to traditional attire and enjoys purchasing them for her and her children while visiting her parents’ homeland. Teaching her daughter traditional cultural recipes is important along with teaching all her children the Arabic language in order to keep them connected with their Arab culture. Riham emphasized the fact that she has learned to be proud of who she is and where she came from and makes sure her children feel the same way about themselves.

Key themes: Parenting, language, religion, culture, clothing, pride.
Interview number: ALS3.1
October 7, 2012
Name: Najah Dahir
Gender: Female
Date of Birth:
Year of immigration: 1991

Abstract: Najah Dahir is a first-generation Arab-American.  Najah was born in Salmia, Kuwait and was raised in Amman, Jordan until she immigrated to the United States in 1991 at the age of twenty-one.  She decided to immigrate because her husband, a Palestinian, lived and owned a corner store business in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  Her greatest difficulties were the language barrier and lack of independence she felt because she could not go out and do things on her own until her husband taught her how to drive.  She represents her Arab background through her cultural clothing and recipes from her mom.  Although Najah is from the city and never wore traditional clothing, she wears sala clothes when she prays which is two pieces consisting of the hijab and a long skirt which keeps her covered while praying.  She has not yet decided to wear the hijab, but intends on doing so in the future after she feels she is religiously ready.

KEY TERMS: cultural recipes and religious clothing.
Interview number: ALS2.1
October 3, 2012
Name: Ahmad
Gender: Male
Date of Birth:
Year of immigration: 1990

Abstract: Ahmad was born in Lebanon, moved to Kuwait with his family as a toddler, but identifies himself as a Palestinian.  He immigrated to the United States at the age of nineteen for better educational opportunities.  The greatest difficulties he had was the language barrier and the different social aspects of American life.  He represents his cultural clothing through his four dishdasha pieces.  They are a long dress made of thin, white material which he mostly wore socially overseas and occasionally wears to the Mosque in America.  The dishdasha’s remind him of his homeland and his roots.  He is proud to represent his country and relive those aspects of his culture through his dishdasha’s which are also a reflection of his religion and emphasize modesty.

KEY TERMS: cultural clothing, identity, and social identity.
Interview number: ALS1.1
September 22, 2012
Name: Mahmoud Saed
Gender: Male
Date of Birth:
Year of immigration: 2009

Abstract: Mahmoud Saed immigrated to the United States from Jordan three years ago.  He is now twenty-five years and is a teacher at the local Salam school.  Mahmoud immigrated to the United States for better educational opportunities.  He received his bachelor’s degree in Accounting at Haishma University in Jordan and after graduation he was given the opportunity to receive a green card in the United States.  He immigrated to obtain his masters and to experience a new life and opportunities in the United States.  Mahmoud quickly adapted to the new culture and learned English by being a receptionist at a front desk at a hotel. Adaptation to his new home in America did not mean totally tailoring a new identity.  He continues to preserve important elements of his culture and religion.  Mahmoud usually only wears the dishdasha ( a long one-piece dress for men) to the Mosque during Ramadan as it symbolizes religion and modesty to him.  He also wears the hatta or kufia during the winter which is a national scar that symbolizes Palestine and Jordan.  He has one for each country, the red and white for Jordan and the black and white for Palestine.  He was influenced by his father and older brothers to wear the traditional clothing.

KEY TERMS: adjustment, cultural clothing.
Number of Interview: AB-1.00
September 21, 2012
Name: Adnan Shanaa
Gender: Male
Date of Birth: 1/26/1950
Country of Origin: Palestine, (born and grew up in a Lebanon Refugee Camp)
Year of Immigration: 1974 (to Abu Dubi) 1978 (To America)

Abstract:  Adnan Shanaa, immigrated to the United States in 1978, initially choosing to settle in Milwaukee in order to attain an Architectural Degree through the University Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Mr Shanaa then transferred to Winona State University in Minnesota and graduated with a degree in computer science. Mr Shanaa intended to seek employment with his degree here in the United States, but political and social events back in the Middle East caused him to lose his passport and essentially any chance of starting a career here in the United States. Without citizenship, Mr. Shanaa, worked in the grocery business with his cousin in Milwaukee since 1983. He married and has three children all of whom have continued to higher education. Mr. Shanaa represents the new wave of immigrants seeking opportunity in the United State  over last four decades of the 20th century.

Key Themes: Lebanon, Islam, 9-11, Arab-American identity, role of religion in the house hold, Small businesses in America.
Number of Interview: RA 5.00
October 23, 2012
Name: Fatmeh Saleh
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: January 5, 1958
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1976

Abstract: Fatmeh’s interview brought insight into the life of a young seventeen year old girl who moved to the United States after marrying her husband in Palestine. Fatmeh speaks about her expectations of America and how the freedom in the states was more than she could imagine. Growing up in Palestine she lived with traditional views of women and now lives a life of exceeding freedom. Fatmeh initially felt homesick after moving to the United States but she highlights the importance of starting her own family which brought her comfort while being far away from home. Wearing cultural clothing gives her a connection not only her homeland, but her sisters and her mother who share the same clothing. Fatmeh is a hard working mother currently supporting her family after her husband passed away years ago and states that America is now her home although she was born in Palestine.

Key Themes: War, freedom, family, marriage, Palestine, religion.
Number of Interview: SMG 3.1 and SMG 3.2
November 2nd, 2012
Name: Naziha Asad
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: March 10th, 1952
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: September 1968

Abstract: Mrs. Naziha Asad is a first generation immigrant from Palestine. She immigrated when she was 14 years old and she focuses a lot on the differences between “back home” and the “old ways” and the U.S and the “younger generation”, especially how this has impacted raising her six children. Mrs. Asad defines herself as an Arab- American. She recently started wearing the scarf every day in the U.S, after she felt shame walking around in Palestine without it. When she wears cultural clothing, mostly at weddings, she feels beautiful, elegant, and as if she “just came from that country”. She wears it to preserve the traditions which she doesn’t want to die out.
Number of Interview: SMG 1.1
September 16th, 2012
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1958
Year of Immigration: 1986

Abstract: The interviewee, who chose to remain anonymous, is a strong and motivated first generation Iranian woman who wishes to use her difficult experiences to help others, especially adult immigrants, integrate into the community. Talking about cultural clothing, the interviewee said she wished to define herself according to her achievements and aspirations in education, not according to cultural or religious clothing. She came to America for her education, and faced setbacks in obtaining educational qualifications due to post- revolutionary relations between America and Iran. When the situation in Iran prevented her from getting a job if she returned, she decided to settle in Milwaukee.

KEY THEMES: education, Iran, citizenship pending, language barrier, single woman, cultural integration, fire, disinterest in cultural clothing, immigration vs. integration.
Number of Interview: SMG 2.1 and SMG 2.2
October 19th and October 22nd, 2012
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1951
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1972

Abstract: The interviewee, who chose to remain anonymous, is a very secure, strong-willed, and mirthful first generation immigrant, who is very proud to self-identify as Palestinian. Her interview highlights her perceptions of key moments in the history of the Israeli-Conflict, while detailing her gradual immigration to Milwaukee. Throughout her life, the interviewee seems to have found opportunities to integrate into the community in a way that contributes to the preservation and maintenance of her Palestinian culture. For her, cultural clothing means a preservation of the past: “and if you don’t have past you’ll never have future.”

KEY THEMES: Palestinian-Israeli Conflict, perceptions of marriage, raising children, maintaining culture, religion, and language.
Number of Interview: RA 1.00
September 13, 2012
Name: Hanaa Atari
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: January 9, 1959
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: December 1978

Abstract:  This interview was conducted with Hanaa, a Palestinian woman, born and raised in Kuwait, who moved to the United States at a young age in order to attend college. Hanaa explains the impact of the Persian Gulf War on her and her family which was her sole purpose of immigrating to the United States.  The interview is a prime example of a Palestinian-Muslim woman becoming part of the American culture, while trying to raise her children with a strong religious and cultural foundation. Cultural clothing is important to Hanaa because its gives her feelings of individuality and reminds her of her home and family. Hanaa feels a special link with her Arab identity when she wears her cultural dresses.   Hanaa speaks about her internal struggles to remain in the United States to finish her education while feeling alone and far away from home at a young age of 19 years old. This is an insightful interview highlighting an opinionated, open minded woman who identifies herself as not only a Palestinian-Muslim woman but also as an American citizen

KEY THEMES:  Kuwait, education, Gulf War, raising children, family, 9/11, culture.
Number of Interview: RA 2.00
September 22, 2012
Name: Rafik Imseitef
Gender: Male
Date of Birth: March 25, 1961
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1976

Abstract: Rafik’s interview provided great insight on the struggles of a young, fifteen year old boy, traveling to the United States while believing in the American Dream and soon realizing that life was much more difficult than expected. His political views and opinions are strongly impacted by his childhood in Palestine, specifically in the time period of the 1967 War. Rafik stresses the importance of religion and education in his and his family’s life. This interview is an excellent example of a man who struggled financially and built his way from the bottom up, expecting to return home to Palestine, but unintentionally making the United States his home. He settled in Milwaukee, where he fell in love with his wife, and raised six children to remain faithful to their religion while providing them with opportunities he never had himself. KEY THEMES: 1967 War, politics, Islam, education, Palestine, family, American Dream.
Number of Interview: RA 3.00
September 28, 2012
Name: Aminah Hamdan
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: March 10, 1982
Gender: Female
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: Aminah Hamdan’s interview provided insight on the opinions of a second generation Arab-American woman who dealt with the struggles of growing up with two contrasting cultures. Wearing traditional clothes allows Aminah to represent who she is while making her Arab identity more visible to others. Aminah explains the ideals and expectations her parents brought back from their homeland, Palestine. She speaks about her ambitions to return to college, and raise her young children with a sense of cultural and religious identity. Aminah highlights the difference in parenting, based on how she was raised and how she wants to continue raising her children. The importance of equality in men and women is stressed in her interview.

KEY THEMES: Parenting, religion, culture, marriage, education, clothing.
Number of Interview: RA 4.00
October 7, 2012
Name: Marouf Dahir
Gender: Male
Date of Birth: August 10, 1959
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1978

Abstract: Marouf’s interview was a glimpse into the life of a man grew up as a teenager in Palestine, participating in demonstrations against the Israeli occupation while going to school to become a greater part of the education system. Marouf speaks about his initial goals and ambitions while being in the United States as well as highlighting his wide variety of knowledge on world events. Family is of main importance to Marouf, and treating his children equally while making sure they do well in their education is imperative. Marouf identifies himself with his Islam, along with both his cultures as an Arab American. Although Marouf describes himself as a cultural man, he appreciates the cultural clothing but does not dress in them often.

Key Themes: Palestine, family, education, demonstrations, marriage, equality.
Number of Interview: RA 6.00
October 24, 2012
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Male
Date of Birth: 1992
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract:  The interviewee chose to remain anonymous and will be referred to as “Husam” throughout the interview. Husam identifies himself more with his Arabic culture rather than his American culture, although he addresses his difficulty of finding the right balance between the two contrasting cultures. American born and raised in Jordan as a young boy, Husam experienced many different environments and found a way to adapt to whichever setting he found himself in. He gives the audience a unique point of view of the difficulties he has faced with the English language and explains how he handled the obstacles in order to better himself. Husam explains that cultural clothing could show ones identity but in his opinion, clothing doesn’t define who he is or who he will be but feels he will start wearing cultural clothing more often as he grows up.  Husam’s interview provides insight on the opinions and perspectives of a second generation Arab-American man who finds importance in attaching a greater meaning on his religion and culture.

Key Themes: Identity, culture, religion, English, Arabic, politics, parents, war.
Number of Interview: TA-100
September 24, 2012
Name: Raisa Ahmad
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1965
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: 1990

Abstract: Due to political turmoil in Pakistan, Mrs. Ahmad and her husband decided to move in 1990. Based on an excellent educational system, the Ahmads’ decided to immigrate to the United States. In this interview, Mrs. Ahmad provides some insight to her life and the decision to immigrate. Mrs. Ahmad wears Pakistani cultural dress most of the time, as she believes it is an expression of cultural identity that should be preserved wherever immigrants have settled. When asked why she still wears Pakistani cultural clothes in the United States, she responded, “If an American person will go to Pakistan I don’t think that they will start wearing our [Pakistani] clothes.” Today Mrs. Ahmad is a mother of four, and identifies herself as a proud Muslim woman. Mrs. Ahmad is also a member of Milwaukee Ahmadiyya Muslim community.

KEY THEMES: Pakistan, Ahmadiyya Muslim community, Cultural clothing.
Number of interview: TA 200
October 4, 2012
Name: Khalil Ahmed
Gender: Male
Date of Birth: February 2, 1936
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: 2001

Abstract: Mr. Khalil Ahmed immigrated to the US with his wife in 2001. Respecting his sons’ desire to care for both his wife and himself, he left his home in Pakistan. Mr. Ahmed talks about the religious persecutions facing Ahmadhis in Pakistan, despite the Ahmadhis status as a peaceful people who pray and live in a peaceful manner. Due to enduring hardship in Pakistan, he values the notion that America offers more safety, better education, and more religious freedoms than Pakistan. Mr. Ahmed is feels attached to his national dress, even in the US, based on its direct cultural link to his life in Pakistan.

KEY THEMES: Ahmadiyya faith, Pakistan, religious freedom, persecution.
Number of Interview: RA 18.00

September 20, 2012

Name: Anonymous

Gender: Female

Date of Birth: Unknown

Country of Origin: Pakistan

Year of Immigration:  1990’s

Abstract: The interviewee chose to remain anonymous and will be referred to as “Lena.”  She was born and raised in Pakistan where she received her master’s degree in sociology. During her interview, Lena talked about her fond memories of going to school in Pakistan and her eagerness to learn from her caring teachers. She initially came to the United States to visit her brother and after volunteering at Salam School, Lena accepted an offer to teach at another school and stay in the United States. The remainder of her interview focused on the effects of 9/11 on the society around her, as well as the role cultural clothing plays in her everyday attire and special occasions such as weddings. She experiences feelings of comfort in her cultural clothing and describes her daughters’ traditional weddings that both took place in Pakistan.

Key Themes: education, career, culture, clothing, 9/11, teaching, arranged marriage, traditional wedding

Interviews Conducted in 2010
Number of Interview: LFF-3.00

Date: June 14, 2010
Name: Dr. Cheema
Gender: Male
Date of Birth:
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: 1950?

Abstract:  Dr. Mohammad Aslam Cheema immigrated to the United States and settled in Chicago in order to attend medical school.  Due to the lack of a Muslim and Pakistani community, Dr. Cheema and his wife cultivated a cultural community of their own.  Dr. Cheema hoped to return to Pakistan with the intention of creating specialized medical units in hospitals.  Due to inadequate support, supplies, and trained personnel, Dr. Cheema was unable to establish his goal of better medical care in Pakistan.  Dr. Cheema returned to Milwaukee where he was instrumental in expanding the Muslim and Pakistani community.  Dr. Cheema’s story reveals the beginning history of the Milwaukee Muslim community and highlights the experiences of early Muslims who immigrated to the United States.
Key Themes:: Pakistan, Chicago in the 1940s, early Muslim communities, Elijah Muhammad, medical school, establishing communities, Muslim-American interaction, creation of ISM, Muslim history in America.
Number of Interview: AM 1.00

Date: October 7, 2010
Name: Joe Makshoof
Gender: Male

Date of Birth: 1938

Country of Origin: Palestine, Jerusalem

Year of Immigration: 1962

Abstract: In 1962, at the age of 22, Joe Makshoof emigrated from Jerusalem, Palestine to the United States in order to attend Marquette University.  As he settled into Milwaukee, he helped his family immigrate to the United States.  Joe stresses the importance of being actively engaged in the community, especially joining organizations that serve both American and Arab interests.  Joe is involved in the following organizations:  Council for National Interests (CNI), the American-Arab Anti Discrimination Committee (ADC), and his local parish.  Joe Makshoof encourages Arabs to build alliances with other Americans by becoming more accepting of other cultures and simultaneously work on clarifying misconceptions of Arabs.
Number of Interview: LFF-1.00

Date: June 10, 2010
Name: Ibtisam

Gender: Female

Date of Birth: August 15, 1956
Country of Origin: Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1966

Abstract: Ibtisam Ahmad’s interview provides insight into a woman born in Palestine, who moved to the United States at a very young age. The interview expresses her keen attachment to Palestine while maintaining strong civic involvement in her local American political system. She is an active member of the Muslim-American community. She continually stresses the importance of religion and education in her life and in the life of her family, articulating keenly, what some might call the Palestinian-Muslim understanding of the “American Creed”. The interview is a prime example of the strong Palestinian woman who embraces both cultural traditions from her “homeland” and the progress and opportunity of her new American home.  Her stories about how she learned the English language, the values she instills in her children, her view of American education is compelling for anyone interested in immigration history. This is an excellent interview highlighting a strong, active woman who identifies herself as a Muslim Palestinian-American woman.

KEY THEMES: Palestine, education, young marriage, 9/11, respect, raising children.
Number of Interview: LFF-5.00

Date: July 13, 2010
Name: Tina

Date of Birth:  1973
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: 1978

Abstract: Tina’s interview provided insight into a woman who was born in Pakistan, but raised primarily in the United States.  Tina delves into details of trying to forge an identity from two different cultures.  The interviewee also chronicles her mother’s life story, the spouse of another interviewee, Dr. Ahmad (see LFF-3.00).  Tina explains her mother’s influence on her education along with her mother’s determination to maintain cultural ties to Pakistan while living in the United States.
Key Themes: Pakistan, education, mother-daughter relationship, early Pakistani community,  medical school and Pakistani culture, cultural tensions, family values.
Number of Interview: MAM 4.1

Date: June 17, 2010
Name: Naeema Mohammad
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1967
Country of Origin: West Bank, Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1984

Abstract: Naema Mohammad came to the United States in order to reside with her spouse   who lived in Milwaukee, WI.  The interviewee did not plan on returning to her homeland but reflected she would have liked to have raised her children there.  Naema dedicated her life to raising her six children, one of whom is entering college.  Naema felt that her life conditions had not changed since moving to the United States except for the fact that there were more opportunities for socialization.  Language was a barrier for her; however, she was able to learn English from an American friend who was married to an Arab man.  Naema continues to identify herself as an Arab woman and finds way to connect to the culture through family contact, cultural events, and Arabic television.
Key Themes: language barrier, support of family/friends in assimilation, modern view of raising boys and girls, some worry about kids’ keeping values, motherhood, Arabic TV keeps her updated, maintenance of connection with her homeland/family.
Number of Interview: MAM 2.1

Date: June 9, 2010

Gender: Female
Name: Anonymous

Date of Birth: 1966
Country of Origin: Saffa, Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1985

Abstract:The interviewee chose to remain anonymous and will be referred to as “Sarah”.  Sarah was born in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia but relocated to Saida, Lebanon for seven years.  At the age of 18, she immigrated to the United States for better educational opportunities and resided in Milwaukee, WI.  Sarah graduated from UW-Milwaukee in 1990 and worked as an outreach worker.  Sarah got married and dedicated her life to raising her two sons who currently attend Salam School.  After her divorce, Sarah resumed her career as an outreach worker for the Latino Organization for Civic Action.  Although Sarah had originally hoped to return to her homeland after completing her education, she found that she enjoyed the life opportunities available to her in the United States and chose to continue to reside here instead.
Key Themes: Sarah’s independence, dealing with unfamiliar American practices, mentality about raising kids, identification with American culture, benefit of financial aid in the U.S.
Number of Interview:MAM 1.1

Date: June 9, 2010

Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1943
Country of Origin: Saffa, Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1987

Abstract: The interviewee chose to remain anonymous and will be referred to as “Areej”.  Areej initially came to the United States in order to be with her five children as they attended college.  During her stay, Areej enjoyed the lifestyle afforded in the United States and chose to remain here.  Although she had a difficult time adjusting to Wisconsin winters, it was important for her to remain near her family.  One of the freedoms Areej enjoyed in the United States was learning how to drive as this was not an option when she lived in Saudi Arabia.  Areej learned English by enrolling in classes at MATC.  Although she has lived in the Unites States for awhile, Areej identifies herself as a Palestinian.  When she compares the freedoms available to her in America versus other countries, Areej is grateful for the opportunities available in her adopted country.

Key Themes: learning to drive, Palestinian identity, Arab countries’ discrimination against Palestinians, political indifference, inability to visit her homeland, sadness about Palestinian occupation, happiness in the U.S.
Number of Interview: MAM 3.1

Date: June 12, 2010
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1970
Country of Origin: Al-Bireh, Palestine
Year of Immigration: July 1, 1989

Abstract: The interviewee immigrated to the United States in 1989 after her marriage.  Her spouse promised her the opportunity to attend college as this was not feasible in Palestine in the midst of the Intifada.  Despite this promise, she did not enroll in college as her husband’s family discouraged it.  She instead helped her spouse complete a Master’s Degree which only provided “proof” to her husband’s family that she was dominating the marriage.  She endured domestic abuse and house confinement before deciding to initiate divorce.  As a result, she lost custody of her three children and did not receive any financial support.  After some difficult time, she returned to school and pursued a degree in nursing.  During the course of the first Gulf War, she experienced verbal harassment that was not addressed by the police department.  When the events of 9/11occurred, she found inner strength to defend herself from the public’s verbal harassment.

KEY THEMES: marriage, divorce and aftermath, work for education and employment, Intifada, first Gulf War in Iraq, defending her faith, Islamic community bias/slander, mixed feelings on identification with Palestinian heritage/Palestinian issues, media/TV bias and subliminal messages.
Number of Interview: AM 4.00

Date: October 21, 2010
Name: Khadijah Yaghnam
Gender: Female

Date of Birth: December 31st, 1954

Country of Origin: Palestine

Year of Immigration: 1987

Abstract: This interview was conducted with a first generation Arab-American. As a Palestinian, Khadijah experienced the 1967 war during which many Palestinians were displaced from their homes. It was then that Khadijah first migrated to Jordan and then in 1987 she came to the United States, and settled in Milwaukee two years later.  This is a heartfelt story about the struggles of a single mother raising her four daughters in a foreign land.  Khadijah discusses the sacrifices she made to come to the United States, her challenges adjusting to a new country and the obstacles she faced raising her daughters on her own. Khadijah stresses the importance of religion and culture in her life, which she also passed along to her daughters. This interview showcases a strong, independent and optimistic Muslim American woman.

Theme Key: Single mother, teacher, Al Nakba, education, importance of religion, independent woman.
Number of Interview: AM 5.00

Date: October 21, 2010

Name: Fehmi Yaghnam
Gender: Male

Date of Birth: 1946

Country of Origin: Palestine

Year of Immigration: 1976

Abstract: Fehmi Yaghnam is a first generation Arab-American who immigrated to the United States from Palestine. His story demonstrates the struggles he encountered to sustain himself and his family. Some of his struggles include his inability to practice and identify with his Muslim identity freely. After working in Denver for eleven years, Fehmi resettled in Milwaukee to be closer to his father and brother. Fehmi owned a small business in both Colorado and Milwaukee. While Fehmi would love to return to his homeland, he and his wife have a difficult time imagining life without their children and grandchildren. He believes it will be unlikely that he will ever return.

Key Themes: Discrimination at work, Palestine, small business owner, robbery, getting shot, Denver.
Number of Interview: JEA 1-1

Date: June 2010

Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female

Date of Birth: December 20, 1965

Country of Origin: Pakistan

Year of Immigration: 1986

Abstract: This interview was conducted with a woman whom we will call “Anaya” who immigrated to the United States twenty-four years ago. Anaya discusses the obstacles faced by immigrants and their struggle to form a new identity. Anaya recalls the process of immigration and describes her life in her adopted home country.

Key Themes: immigration process, relocation across United States, experiences after first coming to the United States.
Number of Interview: JEA 2-4

Date: September 6, 2010

Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female

Date of Birth: 1967

Country of Origin: India

Year of Immigration: 1990

Abstract: This interview was conducted with “Nadia”, an Indian born United States citizen. Nadia provides valuable insight on her identity, her desire to come to America, her role of being both a Muslim and an American. This interview sheds light on assimilation while maintaining individual identity.

Key Themes: identity, religion, role of being an American, parenting, education.
Number of Interview: JEA 2-2

Date: July 30, 2010

Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female

Date of Birth: August 4, 1991

Country of Origin: Pakistan

Year of Immigration: 1993

Abstract: This interview was completed with a young Pakistani born immigrant living in the United States. This interviewee addressed topics including her immigration to the United States, her assimilation into the American culture, racism she has faced and her pursuit of education. This interview is valuable because it informs the reader about the lives of young immigrants, the question of cultural identity and their endeavor to make America their home.

Key Themes: assimilation, immigration, education, politics, religion, involvement in community, and racism.
Number of Interview: JEA 2-3
Date: July 30, 2010
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Male
Date of Birth: December 25, 1962
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: 1993

Abstract: This interview was completed with a Pakistani born immigrant living in the United States.  A translator was utilized during certain portions of this interview in order to clearly convey the thoughts of the participant.  This interviewee addressed his reasons for immigrating to the U.S., assimilation, religious opportunities, and her home village in Pakistan. This interview is insightful because it highlights the transition of a woman from a small village in Pakistan to her life in the United States.

Key Themes: education, village, children, Pakistan, economy, assimilation, cultural differences, parenting.
Number of Interview: LFF-6.00

Date: September 13, 2010
Name: Najoom
Gender: Male
Date of Birth:
Country of Origin:  Lebanon
Year of Family’s immigration: Born in U.S.

Abstract: Dennis Najoom’s interview provided insight into the life of a third-generation Arab Christian American. In the interview, Dennis discussed the lives of his mother, his father and growing up in New Jersey. He shared stories about relatives that illustrated the pressures they felt to assimilate, the relationships among the early Arab-Christian community, and his encounters with racism at school.  A key theme throughout his narrative is the importance of music to his family.
Key Themes: Greater Syria, early Arab immigration, early assimilation, music, Arab-Christian.
Number of Interview: AM 3.00

Date: October 14, 2010
Name: Robert Ashmore
Gender: Male

Date of Birth: 1936

Country of Origin: Lebanon and Syria

Year of Immigration: Born in U.S

Abstract: Robert Ashmore, Professor Emeritus at Marquette University, is a third generation Arab American.  Dr. Ashmore’s family is originally from Lebanon and Syria and immigrated to the United States in the early 1900s.  With Israel’s invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Dr. Ashmore became compelled to join organizations that promoted human rights and justice.  He was instrumental in establishing organizations and lobby groups in Milwaukee that strengthened and increased the visibility of the Arab community.

Key Words: Political Activism, Israel invasion of 1982, Lebanon, Syria, ADC, AAUG, AAI, NAAA, Creation of ISM, establishing Arab community.
Number of Interview: LFF-4.00

Date: July 11, 2010
Name: Anonymous

Gender: Female
Date of Birth:  1980
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Year of Immigration: Born in the U.S.

Abstract: The interviewee chose to remain anonymous and will be referred to as “Iman”.  An exuberant and cheerful young woman, Iman explains her life growing up as a Muslim-Pakistani in the United States.  Iman’s interview provides a window into her large family and stresses the importance of family in her life. Iman completed a degree at Marquette University and plans to return to school in order to obtain her Masters in Business Administration.
Key Themes: Pakistan, teenage work, Muslim Student Association culture,  students life as a Muslim woman, Pakistani culture, religious organization involvement.
Number of Interview: AM 1.00

Date of Interview: October 5, 2010

Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female

Date of Birth: June 12, 1988

Country of Origin: Palestine

Abstract: The interviewee, a second generation Arab-American woman, graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and is currently pursuing her master’s degree in psychology.  She defines herself as an independent woman, a Muslim American, and a Palestinian.   Growing up in Milwaukee,Her identity was influenced by her environment and experiences.  Her unique experiences helped to shape her identity and at times her experiences made certain aspects of her identity more prominent.

Key Words: Identity, newly wed, Graduate student, Palestinian-American, MAS Service Corp, MSA.
Number of Interview: MAM 5.1
Date: July 31, 2010
Name: Mirbet As’ad
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1972
Country of Origin: Nables, Palestine
Year of Immigration: 1993

Abstract:  Merbet As’ad immigrated to the United States from Palestine to live with her husband who was enrolled in school in Milwaukee, studying psychology.  In addition, Mervat wanted to leave her homeland because she was tired of witnessing the death and destruction surrounding her.  Merbet’s greatest challenge upon arriving in the United States was her limited English knowledge.  She befriended an American woman who taught her the language and Merbet taught her to knit and sew.  Merbet also learned to drive despite her spouse’s initial disapproval.  She decided to focus on raising her children before pursuing her dream of a nursing degree.  Merbet sought to raise her children with the same Islamic values her father taught her; however, she was distressed to find the community-wide religious conscience from her childhood absent in American culture.  Merbet is proud of her heritage as an Arab and a Muslim.  It is her hope that the Muslim community will help recent women immigrants learn English and find employment so they do not experience the same hardships she did.

Key themes: reminiscence on her childhood vs. her children’s childhood, suffering due to Palestinian-Israeli Conflict, dedicated motherhood, friendship with non-Muslim neighbors in first assimilation, learning to drive, influence of friends on her kids in school, Islamic values in children, conflict of Islamic values in daughter’s sports.
Number of Interview: LFF-2.00
Date: June 10, 2010
Name: Anonymous
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1979
Country of Origin: Bahrain
Year of Immigration: 2000

Abstract: This interview was completed with a doctor from Bahrain who is currently in the United States completing her medical residency.  This doctor is faced with the task of deciding to either remain in the United States or return to her homeland to practice medicine.  This interview sheds light on the struggles that many student-immigrants face upon completing their education of whether to return home or not.  The interviewee provides insight into her life as a young, modern, educated Middle Eastern woman.  Moreover, her story will resonate with those interested in student-immigrants, modern views of Islam, and the new global Muslim woman.

Key Themes: Bahrain, pending citizenship, medical degree, death, immigration, religion and modernity, spirituality, globalization.
Number of Interview: SMA 3.0
Date: August 13, 2010
Name: Safoora Kauser
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 07/31/1960
Country of Origin: India
Year of Immigration: September 1979

Abstract: Safoora’s interview highlights the ways culture, religion, education, and career contributed to forming her identity.  Safoora discusses the compromises she made in order to balance her home and professional life.  At the age of eighteen, Safoora immigrated to the United States along with her mother and three brothers.  She resided in Chicago and earned a master’s degree in chemistry.  Safoora was offered a job in Milwaukee and relocated with her spouse.  Over the course of the interview, Safoora reiterated the importance of educating her children and the fact that her professional duties at times prevented her from being fully available to them.  Despite the demands on her time, she also stresses the importance of expressing her faith and religious values in her life.

Key themes: India, education, professional career, Ahmadi faith.
Number of Interview: SMA-1

Date: August 8, 2010
Name: Noreen Ahmed
Gender: Female
Date of Birth: 1972
Country of Origin: Pakistan
Date of Immigration: April 24, 1991

Abstract: Noreen immigrated to the United States from Pakistan at the age of nineteen after she married.  Due to her Ahmadi faith, Noreen recalls the constant harassment that she and her family endured at the hands of other religious sects in Pakistan.  In terms of her identity, Noreen identifies herself as a mother first, second as a Muslim, and finally as a Pakistani-American.  After arriving in the United States, Noreen had limited knowledge of the English language but received constant encouragement from others when she would attempt to communicate.  Noreen prides herself on the fact that she helps new immigrants settle in the area.  Noreen recognizes the importance of her actions as it encourages a positive image of Islam.  She believes that the good traits of a Muslim can be seen in their actions towards others.

Key Themes: immigration, settlement, driving, family roles, parenting, Pakistan, persecution, religion, culture.